Latest Jobs and Scholarships update Portal. . .


World War II, Development of Political Parties & Other Factors Encourage African Nationalism

Do you know that one of the major factors that led to rapid formations of new political parties in Africa during the colonial era was the effect of the second World War?

To comprehend this thesis correctly, please do first read:

World War II, Development of Political Parties & Other Factors Encourage African Nationalism

The Development of Political Parties

Post-war nationalist movement in West Africa was carried on through well-organised modern political parties.
These parties were .led by a new generation of nationalist leaders who had considerable mass support.

By using western methods of political agitation, these leaders were able to harness and direct the growing popular unrest of the post-war period towards the achievement of freedom from colonial rule.

1. Nigeria: The National Council of Nigerian Citizens (N.C.N.C. formerly known as the National Council of Nigeria and the Cameroons).

 In Nigeria, the war-time developments described above had led to a considerable degree of national awakening and raised new hopes.

A dynamic organisation was needed to harness the growing nationalist energy for the realisation of the people's nationalist aspirations.

The birth of the N.C.N.C. —the first modern political party in West Africa, supplied this need. On 26th August 1944, at a conference summoned by Dr. Nnamdi Azikiwe and some Nigerian youths, and held in Glover Memorial Hall, Lagos, the N.C.N.C. was inaugurated. Herbert Macaulay and Azikiwe were elected President and General Secretary respectively.

 Among its main objectives were the achievement of national unity and the spread of political education in order to realise self-government, political freedom, economic security, religious toleration and social equality for Nigeria and its people.

The structure of the party lent itself to country-wide and mass support. It was made up of affiliated groups and societies—trade unions, social clubs and tribal unions spread all over the country. Moreover, its role in a number of events in the country soon made it a party of the masses.

The 'General Strike' of 1945 was supported by Dr. Azikiwe and his 'West African Pilot' which became the organ of the party. This rallied the trade unions solidly behind the party.

 Secondly, the N.C.N.C. protest campaign against the shortcomings of the Richard's Constitution of 1946 and the `obnoxious ordinances' made it the champion of the oppressed peoples and chiefs of Nigeria. In the process of the campaign, the N.C.N.C. leaders toured the country to educate the people on the issues at stake and raise funds for a prOtest delegation to London.

The effect of this tour on the masses was electric. For the first time, the people in the villages were made to come face to face with the realities of the quarrel between the nationalist elite and the colonial administration.

This tour marked the beginning of political consciousness for the remote areas of Nigeria and the emergence of Azikiwe as a nationalist leader. Thirdly, the N.C.N.C. Freedom Charter of 1948 in which it asserted the people's "right to arrogate to themselves the status of an independent, self-governing, political community" appealed to the nationalist sentiment of the literate masses. Thus between 1944 and 1948, the N.C.N.C. was at the peak of its popularity as a nationalist front against British colonial rule in Nigeria. But between 1948 and 1951 the party seemed to have lost its radical spirit and gradually sank into a state of inactivity.

 The failure of the London delegation to achieve its objectives; the quarrel among the party's leaders over the expenditure of £13,000 collected for the London delegation ; and the conciliatory policy of the new Governor Sir John Macpherson who promised a review of the Richard's Constitution in no distant date, explain this lull in the nationalist movement led by the N.C.N.C.

The Zikist Movement: It was at this juncture that the Zikist Movement founded in 1946 as a youth wing of the N.C.N.C. emerged as a militant nationalist party.

The words of its president Mallam H. R. Abdallah breathe the spirit of its militancy. "I hate the Union Jack with all my heart because it divides the people wherever it goes. . . We have passed the age of petition. . .

 This is the age of action. . ." He and two of his colleagues were jailed in 1949 for sedition  an event which made them national heroes.

No comments:

Post a comment

Post Top Ad

Your Ad Spot